Overview of the situation
Tropical Cyclone Twenty Six formed over the North West Pacific Ocean north of Kwajalein (Marshall Islands) on 7 September and started moving north-west toward Guam. (ECHO, 7 Sep 2018) On 9 September at 00.00 UTC, its centre was located at 930 km east of the Northern Mariana Islands and at 1090 km northern-east of Guam, with a maximum sustained wind speed of 120 km/h (Category 1) (ECHO, 9 Sep 2018).
[FEMA] announced that federal emergency aid has been made available to the Northern Mariana Islands to supplement the Commonwealth and local response efforts due to the emergency conditions in the area affected by...Typhoon Mangkhut, from 10 September onward. (FEMA, 10 Sep 2018) Typhoon Mangkhut is the strongest storm to hit the Northern Marianas island of Rota since 2002 (Radio New Zealand Int'l, 12 Sep 2018).
According to the [PAGASA], Typhoon Mangkhut is expected to enter the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) around 14H00, 12 September 2018. It will be given the local name "Ompong." The strength and the size of the typhoon (700-900km wide) is expected to cause substantial damage in communities in the provinces of Apayao, Batanes, Ilocos Norte and Cagayan, and in the Babuyan Group of Islands. Around 2 million people (almost 450,000 households) live in these areas (IFRC, 12 Sep 2018).
The Government of Viet Nam is also preparing for Typhoon Mangkhut as it continues to move westward and likely to make landfall in the country between 17 and 18 Sep 2018 (AHA Centre, 13 Sep 2018).
Typhoon Mangkhut (locally named Ompong) made its landfall in Baggao, Cagayan in the early morning of 15 September and is expected to exit the [PAR] late Saturday night or early Sunday morning. The typhoon has caused landslides, damage to buildings and homes, and intermittent loss of power. According to the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council, over 58,000 people are displaced, with more than 51,000 in evacuation centres in Region I, II, III, CAR. (OCHA, 15 Sep 2018)
As of 16 September (2 a.m., Manila time), Typhoon Mangkhut...has moved towards Southern China, having exited the [PAR] at 9 p.m. on 15 September. Tropical cyclone warning signals have been lifted, although the Southwest Monsoon may still bring winds and scattered rain over the northern Luzon and Central Visayas region. More than 250,000 people (63,769 families) in 30 provinces across Regions NCR, I, II, III, CALABARZON, MIMAROPA and CAR, are estimated to have been affected by the Typhoon...As of 10 a.m., 16 September, over 1,200 evacuation centres in Regions I, II, III, CALABARZON, MIMAROPA, Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR), and the National Capital Region (NCR) are currently sheltering nearly 138,000 people, while 16,000 people are staying with relatives or friends in Regions I, II, III, MIMAROPA, and CAR. (OCHA, 16 Sep 2018)
An estimated 4.6 million people are living in areas affected by the Typhoon. As of 17 September, 192,840 people are sheltering in 1,899 evacuation centres. (OCHA, 17 Sep 2018)
As of 19 September, more than one million people are affected in Region I, II, III CALABARZON, MIMAROPA, National Capital Region (NCR) and Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR). About 42 per cent of those are located in Region III, while 31 per cent are located in Region I. More than 148,000 people are displaced, with over 61,000 people seeking shelter in more than 471 evacuation centres, and more than 87,000 people staying with host families. Several affected regions continue to experience power interruptions as services are gradually being restored. The number of damaged houses continues to rise as responders reach previously isolated areas and assessment reports come in. (OCHA, 19 Sep 2018)
As of 21 September, more than 1.6 million people have reportedly been affected by Typhoon Mangkhut (locally named Ompong) which made landfall on 15 September. Regions I, II, III and CAR in northern and central Luzon are the most impacted. More than 128,000 people remain displaced, with over 54,000 people seeking shelter in more than 365 evacuation centres, and more than 74,000 people staying with host families. The Government has confirmed 23 deaths. More than 49,000 houses are reported damaged or destroyed, and over 288,000 farmers and fisherfolk severely affected. The national government estimates the total damage to infrastructure and agriculture to exceed PhP17.9 billion (US$340 million). (OCHA, 24 Sep 2018)
As of 27 September, the latest figures from the Department of Health – Cordillera Administrative Region (DOH-CAR) reported 100 deaths from Typhoon Ompong, mainly due to the landslide incident in Itogon, Benguet. There are 39 people who remain missing while 82 were reported injured and treated at the health facilities. A total of 156 local health facilities in Regions I, II and CAR were damaged due to the storm but all are still functioning and able to provide continuous health services to the affected population. (WHO, 27 Sep 2018)
To expedite the early recovery and rehabilitation phase for the affected families of Typhoon Mangkhut (locally named Ompong), the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) has released the guidelines for the implementation of the Emergency Shelter Assistance (ESA) program to assist in the shelter reconstruction of typhoon survivors. The assistance program is expected to provide P30,000 to typhoon victims with totally-damaged houses, and P10,000 to families with partially-damaged houses. As of 4 October, here are 209,908 damaged houses reported in Regions I, II, III, and CAR. (Govt. of Philippines, 4 Oct 2018).
As of 6 October, more than 3 million people had been identified as affected, with over 14,000 people displaced. The National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council has confirmed over 70 deaths and more than 130 injured. Over 210,000 homes had been reported as damaged, of which seven per cent (more than 14,000) are completely destroyed. (OCHA, 8 Oct 2018).
As reported, a total of 469,230 people was displaced to 3,678 evacuation centers and 628,006 people displaced to other locations. Those figures have dropped significantly to 897 people still in evacuation centers in Region III, CALABARZON and CAR; while 13,924 people are still displaced in the same regions while staying with host families (IFRC, 24 Oct 2018).
Government, humanitarian and private sector actors are coordinating action on the ground to provide support and deliver aid to the people in need. Here the reported damage.
• The Humanitarian Country Team is preparing to support the Marawi humanitarian response into 2019, seeking to address residual humanitarian needs of the most vulnerable and displaced population and promote early recovery, protection, gender and culturally sensitive approaches.
• Residents in northern and central Luzon are beginning to recover three months after Typhoon Mangkhut (locally named Ompong) and six weeks following Typhoon Yutu (locally named Rosita) devastated the regions.
• Response preparedness training and pre-crisis surveys were conducted in hazard-prone regions in the Philippines to support ongoing preparedness and risk reduction initiatives by provincial authorities.
Supporting Marawi recovery into 2019
Government-led rehabilitation and recovery is underway in the most affected areas in Marawi City, following a groundbreaking ceremony on 30 October and demolition of destroyed structures in November. The private company undertaking the demolition and debris clearing was later put temporarily on hold, pending permits and further consultations by Task Force Bangon Marawi with homeowners. Work to clear barangays in Sector 1 is reportedly scheduled to be completed March 2019.
Financing recovery and rehabilitation
The Philippines Government has devised several strategies to fund the reconstruction of Marawi City’s most affected areas, led by the Department of Finance. International and private sector partners have pledged funding towards the Government’s Bangon Marawi Comprehensive Rehabilitation and Recovery Program (BMCRRP) including such as Australia, China,
Germany, Japan, Korea, Spain, and the United States. The Asian Development Bank announced on 14 December a US$408 million financing package which includes a loan to finance programmes under the BMCRRP, the reconstruction of roads and infrastructure and grants towards rehabilitating water supply systems, rebuilding health facilities, and scaling up education and livelihood programmes. Other international development and recovery partners acknowledged in a statement by the Department of Finance include the World Bank, the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) as well as the United Nations. Private sector partners under the Philippine Disaster Resilience Foundation are also working with provincial authorities in supporting rehabilitation efforts and is rolling out water supply projects in Marawi City schools.
Peace and security situation
A majority vote in the Philippine Senate and Congress approved the extension of Martial Law in Mindanao until the end of 2019. This is the third extension, which was initially declared by President Rodrigo Duterte following the start of the Marawi Conflict in May 2017. In a letter to Congress, President Duterte cited the continuing hostile activities of non-state armed groups in Mindanao as a basis for requesting for the extension.
Expanding the peace process in Mindanao is a key priority of the Government. Peace and security has been fragile in Mindanao for over four decades and has been a barrier to economic progress and sustainable development in the region. Republic Act 11054 or the Bangsamoro Organic Law, is central to the peace process with non-state armed groups and was signed into law by President Duterte in July. The Bangsamoro Organic Law, intended to create a region to replace the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), will be subject to a plebescite on 21 January (for voters from the five provinces of ARMM – Maguindanao, Lanao del Sur, Basilan, Sulu, Tawi-Tawi and the cities of Cotabato and Isabela. A second date, 6 February, will be for voters in Lanao del Norte,
North Cotabato and other areas that petitioned for inclusion in the proposed new entity to be known as the Bangasamoro Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (BARMM).
Seeking durable solutions for Marawi displaced
As of 28 October, over 73,000 people remain displaced, with most staying with host families while others are either in evacuation centres or temporary shelters.
According to the Protection Cluster, which is co-led by UNHCR and the Department of Social Welfare and Development, humanitarian needs that were voiced by Marawi IDPs include food assistance, livelihood support, and compensation for damaged homes and property. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is targeting assistance to over 12,000 people in a birth registration initiative, helping those who lost their civil documents as they were fleeing the conflict.
Humanitarian response strategy into 2019
The Humanitarian Country Team (HCT), composed of in-country UN agencies, international and local NGOs and the private sector, coordinates with the Government of the Philippines at the national and Mindanao level to support the priority humanitarian needs of people displaced and affected by Marawi conflict and coordinating with Regional, Provincial and Local Government Agencies to identify opportunities to assist in early recovery efforts. As humanitarian programmes under the United Nations Central Emergency Response Fund are completed at the end of 2018, the momentum of humanitarian assistance to complement Government-led recovery must continue.
The HCT and partners are revising the Humanitarian Response and Resource Overview document for the Marawi Conflict, as reflected in the 2019 Global Humanitarian Overview, to address the humanitarian and early recovery needs of about 300,000 beneficiaries in 2019 in support of the Government-led efforts. The response seeks to address residual humanitarian needs of the most vulnerable and displaced population and promote early recovery, protection, gender and culturally sensitive approaches as cross-cutting themes for all clusters. The HCT and partners are seeking $43.6 million, to respond to the humanitarian and early recovery needs of the displaced and returnee population in 2019.
For the past two months, two typhoons traversed the northern Luzon provinces. In September 2018, Typhoon Mangkhut (Ompong) made landfall in the Municipality of Baggao, Cagayan province with a peak intensity of more than 200 km/h. It was by far the most destructive typhoon this year. It caused over a million people displaced, damages to infrastructure and agricultural crops, thousands of houses destroyed and landslide in the highlands. Typhoon Yutu (Rosita) made landfall in October 2018 in the Municipality of Dinapigue, Isabela province, just a few hundred kilometres south of Typhoon Mangkhut’s path. With 150 km/h maximum sustained winds, Typhoon Yutu’s effects exacerbated the damages already inflicted by Typhoon Mangkhut, hampering the response and recovery efforts in the region. These two successive typhoons likewise affected 1,098 barangays within 100 kilometer radius along paths of both typhoons that resulted in repeated displacements in six provinces.